In a recent study published in scientific reportresearchers are investigating the association between dietary niacin intake and the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
study: Association between dietary intake of niacin and the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Image credit: monticello / Shutterstock.com
What causes COPD?
COPD is characterized by airflow obstruction due to abnormalities in the airways and alveoli. As a result, the most common symptoms associated with COPD include difficulty breathing, coughing, and phlegm production. In addition to the lungs, COPD can also affect the muscles, bones, and cardiovascular system, posing a significant burden to public health.
Despite recent advances in the treatment and management of COPD, the disease remains highly deadly, with more than 3 million people dying from COPD each year. There are several factors that increase the risk of COPD, but the most notable ones include smoking and aging. However, there is still a lack of data on how intake of specific vitamins through supplements or a balanced diet affects his risk of COPD.
Vitamins are important components of normal physiological processes. For example, vitamins B3, C, E, and D effectively reduce oxidative stress by limiting lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and end-product glycation. Similarly, several vitamins are also associated with antioxidant properties that support cellular repair processes and reduce inflammatory responses.
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is found in a variety of foods including meat, fish, and nuts. It is involved in many cellular processes, including metabolism, DNA repair, and nervous system function.
Previous studies have found that niacin and other nutrients such as vitamin A, fiber, carbohydrates, protein, riboflavin, and vitamin C are associated with reduced injury severity in COPD patients. However, few studies have investigated the role of niacin in COPD.
In this study, researchers searched National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2003 to 2018, focusing on dietary niacin intake and individuals with COPD. Dietary information was obtained from his 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire twice, 3-10 days apart. Participants’ responses to these surveys were used to determine their intake of niacin, energy, alcohol, and macronutrients.
Study participants were considered to have COPD if they self-reported a doctor’s diagnosis and had a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV).1) Forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.7 or age 40 years or older with a history of smoking or chronic bronchitis and use of selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, mast cell stabilizers, leukotriene modifiers, or inhaled corticosteroids.
Demographic data regarding participants’ gender, age, body mass index (BMI), race, household income, education level, smoking status, drinking habits, and history of diabetes or hypertension were also recorded. Blood samples were also collected for baseline plasma glucose measurements.
After excluding individuals due to lack of COPD, dietary niacin intake, and demographic data, 7,055 participants comprised the final analysis sample set, of which 243 had COPD. The mean age of COPD patients was 60.8 years, and the mean age of the non-COPD group was 46.7 years. Lower income, more frequent smoking and drinking, diabetes, and hypertension were also more frequently reported in the COPD group.
Study participants who reported the highest intakes of niacin had a significantly lower risk of COPD than those who reported the lowest intakes. Indeed, a clear dose-response relationship was observed between dietary niacin intake and his COPD prevalence, with increased dietary niacin intake associated with a consistent decrease in his COPD prevalence.
The protective effect of dietary niacin intake on COPD incidence was independent of age, income, smoking, drinking habits, marital status, race, hypertension, and diabetes.
The current study established a dose-response relationship between dietary niacin intake and COPD prevalence using a representative sample of adults residing in the United States. Niacin may reduce oxidative stress in COPD by improving the antioxidant capacity of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, thereby reducing airway inflammation and improving lung function. Nevertheless, further research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism by which niacin intake affects her COPD.
- Lee, W., Ren, K., Yu, J. other. (2024). Association between dietary niacin intake and the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. scientific report 14(1); 1-9. doi:10.1038/s41598-024-53387-4